Class 11- The Summer of the Beautiful White Horse

The Summer of the Beautiful White Horse,Mourad,william saroyan

Chapter 1. William Saroyan’s ‘The Summer of the Beautiful White Horse’ Summary, Theme, Character Sketch, Question Answers, Important Passages and Extra Questions.

Chapter 1- The Summer of the Beautiful White Horse by William Saroyan:

Also Read: Hornbill- Class XI- Prose


Alfalfa – A plant widely grown for animal feed.
Barn – A large farm building storing grain, hay, or livestock.
Capricious – Given sudden and unaccountable changes in mood or behaviour.
Honesty – The quality of being truthful and fair.
Longings – Strong desires or yearnings.
Pious – Devoutly religious or earnest.
Surrey – A light four-wheeled carriage with two seats facing forward.
Tempered – Having a specified temper or disposition.
Trotting – Moving faster than a walk, lifting each diagonal pair of legs alternately.
Vagrant – Wandering or unpredictable.
Vineyard – A plantation of grapevines, typically producing grapes used in winemaking.

Idiomatic expressions present in the story:

Good old days – A nostalgic reference to a time in the past that is remembered fondly.
A way with – A unique ability to handle or manage something well.
Pious stillness – A serene and respectful quietness.
Make it quick – To hurry or be fast.
Made a way – To find a method or approach to handle something.
Stalked out – To walk out in a way that shows one is upset or angry.
What is the world coming to? – Expressing dismay or confusion about the current state.
Everybody in the world – An exaggerated way of saying a lot of people.
Make a sound – To produce any noise.

Summary “The Summer of the Beautiful White Horse”:

In William Saroyan’s The Summer of the Beautiful White Horse, we meet nine-year-old Aram and his cousin Mourad. Mourad, known for his unpredictable nature, wakes Aram one morning with a surprising proposition: ride a beautiful white horse. Despite their family’s poverty and reputation for honesty, Aram agrees. Mourad reveals that he has been secretly riding the stolen horse for weeks, and they share a unique bond with the horse, a bond that makes it behave. 

Their adventure takes a turn when they encounter the horse’s owner, John Byro, who recognises his horse but trusts the boys due to their family’s honesty. Faced with a moral dilemma, Mourad decides to return the horse. The following day, they quietly return it to Byro’s barn. Byro later expresses gratitude for the horse’s improved condition, unaware that Mourad and Aram had taken care of it.

Theme “The Summer of the Beautiful White Horse”:

Balancing Adventure and Integrity: 

The central theme of “The Summer of the Beautiful White Horse” by William Saroyan is the conflict between family values and the desire for adventure. The story highlights the importance of honesty, a core value of the Garoghlanian family, despite their poverty. Mourad and Aram’s adventure with the stolen horse reveals their love for freedom and excitement and tests their integrity.

The boys struggle with the morality of keeping the horse versus returning it to its rightful owner. Ultimately, their actions show respect for their family’s reputation for honesty and the importance of doing the right thing, even when it’s complicated. The story also touches on the family bond and childhood innocence.

Character Sketch:

Character Sketch of Aram: 

1. Age and Perspective:

  • Nine years old.
  • Views the world with wonder and imagination.

2. Family Background:

  • Belongs to the Garoghlanian family.
  • Values honesty and integrity, a long-standing family tradition.

3. Personality Traits:

  • Innocent and naive.
  • Honest and morally upright.
  • Dreamy and imaginative.

4. Relationship with Mourad:

  • Admires and looks up to his cousin Mourad.
  • Despite recognising his cousin’s mischievous nature, he shares a strong bond with Mourad.

5. Desire for Adventure:

  • Fascinated by the idea of riding a horse.
  • He is torn between his love for adventure and his family’s values.

6. Moral Conflict:

  • Initially struggles with the idea of riding a stolen horse.
  • Ultimately, he adheres to his family’s values of honesty and integrity.

7. Growth and Learning:

  • Gains a deeper understanding of right and wrong.
  • Learned the importance of balancing desires with moral principles.

8. Innocence and Trust:

  • Trusts Mourad’s judgment and decisions.
  • Believes in the goodness of people and the world.

9. Emotional Sensitivity:

  • Feels a mix of excitement and fear during the horse-riding adventure.
  • Shows concern for the horse and its well-being.

10. Narrative Role:

  • Serves as the narrator of the story.
  • Provides insights into the Garoghlanian family’s values and traditions.

Character Sketch of Mourad: 

1. Adventurous and Brave:

  • Mourad is eager to embark on daring adventures like riding a stolen horse at dawn.
  • His bravery is evident when he confidently handles the horse and convinces Aram to join him.

2. Passionate and Free-Spirited:

  • He has a deep passion for life and enjoys every moment.
  • His free-spirited nature is reflected in his joyful singing while riding the horse and his spontaneous actions.

3. Resourceful and Skilled:

  • Mourad demonstrates resourcefulness in finding a place to hide and maintain the horse.
  • His skill in handling animals is shown through his ability to tame and control the horse and his rapport with dogs.

4. Mischievous yet Principled:

  • Despite his mischievous act of taking the horse, Mourad shows a strong moral compass.
  • He ultimately decides to return the horse, respecting his family’s reputation for honesty.

5. Charismatic and Persuasive:

  • Mourad’s charisma is evident in his interactions, convincing Aram to ride and confidently speaking to John Byro.
  • His persuasive skills help him handle situations, such as when they meet the horse’s owner.

6. Loyal and Considerate:

  • Mourad shares his love for horses with Aram, understanding his cousin’s longings.
  • He is loyal to his family values, ensuring the horse is returned despite the fun they had.

7. Inheritor of Family Traits:

  • Mourad inherits the “crazy streak” of the Garoghlanian family, particularly from his uncle Khosrove.
  • His actions, though wild, are driven by a sense of adventure and deep family pride.

Important Passages from “The Summer of the Beautiful White Horse”:

1. Introduction of Mourad and the Horse:

“One day back there in the good old days when I was nine and the world was full of every imaginable kind of magnificence, …my house at four in the morning and woke me up tapping on the window of my room.”

  • The opening passage sets the scene and introduces Mourad’s character and his mysterious early morning visit.

2. Aram’s Astonishment and Doubt:

“I couldn’t believe what I saw. It wasn’t morning yet, but it was summer and with daybreak …My cousin Mourad was sitting on a beautiful white horse.”

  • Aram’s initial disbelief and the detailed description of the horse highlight the extraordinary nature of the situation.

3. Mourad’s Invitation to Ride:

“Leap out of the window, he said, if you want to ride. It was true, then. He had stolen the horse. There was no question about it.”

  • Mourad’s casual attitude toward the stolen horse introduces the central conflict.

4. Aram’s Rationalization:

“Well, it seemed to me stealing a horse for a ride was not the same thing as stealing something else, such as money. For all I knew, maybe it wasn’t stealing at all.”

  • This passage shows Aram’s internal conflict and justification for riding the horse.

5. Mourad’s Reputation and the Crazy Streak:

“Every family has a crazy streak in it somewhere, and my cousin Mourad was considered the natural descendant of the crazy streak in our tribe.”

  • This passage provides insight into Mourad’s character and the family’s view of him.

6. Status and Family Values:

“We were poor. We had no money. Our whole tribe was poverty-stricken… We were proud first, honest next, and after that we believed in right and wrong. None of us would take advantage of anybody in the world, let alone steal.”

  • This passage provides crucial context about the family’s financial status and strong moral values, adding depth to the story.

7. The Reality of the Situation:

“Mourad, I said, where did you steal this horse? Leap out of the window, he said, if you want to ride. It was true, then. He had stolen the horse. There was no question about it.”

  • Aram’s direct question and Mourad’s casual response confirm the theft and set the stage for their adventure.

8. The Ride and Mourad’s Singing:

“We rode and my cousin Mourad sang. For all anybody knew we were still in the old country where, at least according to some of our neighbours, we belonged. We let the horse run as long as it felt like running.”

  • This passage captures the joy and freedom of their ride, along with Mourad’s carefree spirit.

9. Encounter with John Byro:

“That afternoon my uncle Khosrove came to our house for coffee and cigarettes. He sat in the parlour, sipping and smoking and remembering the old country. Then another visitor arrived, a farmer named John Byro… ‘My white horse which was stolen last month is still gone — I cannot understand it.'”

  • The passage introduces the subplot of John Byro’s missing horse and the urgency of resolving the situation. The introduction of John Byro and his missing horse adds tension and a turning point in the story.

10. Mourad’s Decision to Return the Horse:

“‘What? he roared. Are you inviting a member of the Garoghlanian family to steal? The horse must go back to its true owner.’

  • Shows Mourad’s strong sense of integrity and the decision to return the horse.

11. Mourad’s Interaction with John Byro:

“‘Good morning, John Byro,’ my cousin Mourad said to the farmer… ‘I would swear it is my horse if I didn’t know your parents. The fame of your family for honesty is well known to me.'”

  • This interaction emphasises the trust and reputation of the family, creating a moral dilemma.

12. Return of the Horse:

“Early the following morning we took the horse to John Byro’s vineyard and put it in the barn… My cousin Mourad put his arms around the horse, pressed his nose into the horse’s nose, patted it, and then we went away.”

  • Returning the horse highlights the resolution of their moral conflict and Mourad’s deep connection with the horse.

13. John Byro’s Gratitude and Khosrove’s Reaction:

“That afternoon John Byro came to our house in his surrey and showed my mother the horse that had been stolen and returned. ‘I do not know what to think,’ he said. ‘The horse is stronger than ever. Better-tempered, too. I thank God.’ …

  • This final scene brings closure, showing John Byro’s gratitude and Khosrove’s characteristic bluntness, reinforcing the family’s eccentric yet honest nature.

Question Answers “The Summer of the Beautiful White Horse”:

Textbook Question Answers:

Q1: You will probably agree that this story does not have breathless adventure and exciting action. Then what in your opinion makes it interesting? 

A1: This story may not have thrilling action, but its charm lies in its exploration of relationships, values, and the inner world of the characters. The dynamic between Aram and his cousin Mourad, the contrast between their adventurous spirit and the family’s strong moral code, adds depth to the narrative. 

The story explores honesty, integrity, and the complexities of right and wrong. Through simple yet vivid storytelling, readers are drawn into the world of these characters, their dilemmas, and their adventures, making it compelling despite the lack of conventional action.

Q2: Did the boys return the horse because they were conscience-stricken or because they were afraid? 

A2: The boys returned the horse primarily because they were conscience-stricken. They returned the horse because they felt guilty about keeping it, not because they were afraid. They realised that stealing the horse went against their family’s values of honesty and integrity. 

Even though they enjoyed riding the horse, they understood it belonged to someone else and that keeping it would be wrong. So, they decided to return it out of a sense of moral responsibility and respect for the owner rather than fear of getting caught.

Q3: “One day back there in the good old days when I was nine and the world was full of every imaginable kind of magnificence, and life was still a delightful and mysterious dream…” The story begins in a mood of nostalgia. Can you narrate some incident from your childhood that might make an interesting story? 


In my childhood, life was like a colourful cartoon, full of wonder and joy. I remember my carefree Sundays with family when I was seven; the sun shone brightly, casting golden rays across our backyard. My heart danced excitedly as I dashed outside, eager to join my furry friends in their playful antics. Our yard was a magical playground where every bush and tree held a secret adventure waiting to unfold.

My loyal companions, a naughty puppy named Max and a curious kitten named Toddy, bounded alongside me. We tackled countless Sunday adventures together, from daring explorations of hidden corners to imaginative quests to save imaginary kingdoms.

In those carefree moments, time seemed to stand still, and the world felt like a place of endless possibilities. With each laugh and bond, I felt a sense of pure happiness that only a child’s heart can know. Looking back now, I cherish those precious memories of childhood innocence, where every day was a new adventure waiting to unfold.

Q4:  The story revolves around characters who belong to a tribe in Armenia. Mourad and Aram are members of the Garoghlanian family. Now locate Armenia and Assyria on the atlas and prepare a write-up on the Garoghlanian tribes. You may write about people, their names, traits, geographical and economic features as suggested in the story.


The Garoghlanian tribe, as depicted in “The Summer of the Beautiful White Horse,” is characterised by its strong sense of honesty, pride, and modesty. The people of this tribe, residing in Armenia, are known for their humble yet noble demeanour, reflecting their long-standing traditions and values.

Names within the Garoghlanian family, such as Mourad, Aram, Khosrove, and Zorab, reflect Armenian cultural heritage. These names often have historical or religious significance and are passed down through generations, connecting individuals to their ancestry and identity. 

Geographically, the Garoghlanian family resides on Walnut Avenue, on the outskirts of a town, surrounded by vineyards, orchards, and countryside. This setting reflects the rural landscape in Armenian regions, characterised by agricultural livelihoods and close-knit communities.

Economically, the Garoghlanian family faces financial struggles, like many Armenian families depicted in literature and historical accounts. Despite their poverty, they prioritise honesty and integrity over material wealth, emphasising the importance of character and moral principles.

Extra Questions “The Summer of the Beautiful White Horse”:

Short Answer Type Questions: 

Q1: Who wakes Aram up one summer morning, and what surprising sight do they see?

A1: Aram’s cousin Mourad wakes them one summer morning by tapping their window. The surprising sight they see is Mourad sitting on a beautiful white horse, inviting Aram to ride. This unexpected encounter begins an adventure that challenges Aram’s perceptions and beliefs.

Q2: Why does the Aram initially doubt their cousin stole the horse?

A2: The Aram doubts their cousin stole the horse because their family, spanning generations, is renowned for its honesty. Despite their poverty, integrity remains paramount. Thus, the Aram cannot fathom their cousin being a thief—this deep-rooted belief in their family’s honesty conflicts with the notion of theft.

Q3: What are the main characteristics of the Garoghlanian family mentioned in the story?

A3: The Garoghlanian family is characterised by poverty, honesty, and pride. Despite their financial struggles, they maintain a reputation for integrity, upheld for over eleven centuries. Their values prioritise honesty, even in the face of temptation or adversity.

Q4: How does the Aram feel when riding the horse for the first time?

A4: The Aram feels excitement and fear when riding the horse for the first time. While exhilarated by the experience and the freedom it represents, they also experience a sense of apprehension, unsure how to handle the powerful and unfamiliar animal beneath them.

Q5: What understanding does the cousin claim to have with horses?

A5: The cousin claims to have a simple and honest understanding of horses. He asserts that he can get horses to want to do anything he desires. This implies a deep, intuitive connection with horses, built on mutual respect and communication rather than coercion or force.

Q6: What does Aram’s cousin do to convince the horse to behave nicely?

A6: To convince the horse to behave nicely, Aram’s cousin employs a combination of physical gestures and calming words. He presses his nose against the horse’s nose, pats it affectionately, and speaks to it reassuringly. This gentle approach helps soothe the horse and gain its cooperation.

Q7: Why does the farmer, John Byro, suspect that the horse is his stolen one?

A7: The farmer, John Byro, suspects that the horse is his stolen one because of its striking resemblance to his horse and its presence in the possession of Aram’s cousin, despite the family’s reputation for honesty. The similarity in appearance raises doubts in John Byro’s mind.

Q8: How does the cousin convince John Byro that the horse isn’t stolen?

A8: The cousin convinces John Byro that the horse isn’t stolen by invoking the family’s reputation for honesty and integrity. He assures John Byro that their family would never commit theft and allows him to examine the horse closely, emphasising their trustworthiness and good condition as evidence of its rightful ownership.

Q9: Why does the Aram want to keep the horse hidden for a year?

A9: The Aram wants to keep the horse hidden for a year to learn to ride correctly. They believe it will take approximately a year to acquire the necessary skills, hoping to master horse riding before returning the horse to its rightful owner.

Q10: How does the cousin ultimately resolve the situation with the stolen horse?

A10: After briefly hiding it, the cousin resolves the situation by returning the stolen horse to its rightful owner, farmer John Byro. Despite Aram’s desire to keep the horse learning to ride, the cousin prioritises honesty and integrity, honoring their family’s reputation.

Q11: How does the story’s setting shape the events and characters’ actions?

A11: The story’s setting, situated in a rural area with vineyards, orchards, and country roads, fosters a sense of freedom and possibility. The expansive landscape allows the characters to engage in spontaneous adventures, such as stealing and riding a horse, while reflecting the family’s humble origins and close connection to nature.

Q12: What does the story suggest about the theme of freedom in terms of physical freedom and personal choices?

A12: The story suggests that true freedom transcends physical constraints and encompasses the ability to make independent choices. While the characters enjoy the freedom of riding the horse and exploring the countryside, they also navigate moral dilemmas and the consequences of their actions, highlighting the complexity of personal liberty and responsibility.

Q13: Discuss the significance of the horse as a symbol in the story and its impact on the characters’ lives.

A13: The horse symbolises freedom, adventure, and temptation in the story. Its unexpected appearance ignites excitement and desire in the characters, leading them to question their values and moral boundaries. The horse’s presence disrupts their lives, forcing them to confront their desires, integrity, and the consequences of their actions.

Q14: Explore the theme of family loyalty and its complexities as portrayed in the story.

A14: Family loyalty is depicted as a cornerstone of the Garoghlanian family, overshadowing financial struggles. Despite their poverty, they uphold a reputation for honesty and prioritise familial bonds over personal desires. However, loyalty is tested when the cousin’s actions challenge their integrity, forcing them to reconcile familial duty with individual morality.

Q15: Reflect on the story’s ending and implications for Aram’s future choices and relationships.

A15: The story’s ending, with the horse returned and the family’s integrity intact, reinforces the value of honesty and responsibility. Aram learns crucial lessons about ethics and family loyalty, likely guiding their future choices and relationships to prioritise integrity and uphold the family’s esteemed reputation.

Long Answer Type Questions: 

Q1: How does Aram describe his cousin Mourad’s personality, and how does it contrast with the family’s reputation?

A1: The Aram describes his cousin Mourad as someone who enjoys life more than anyone else, with a zest for adventure and a touch of craziness that sets him apart. Mourad’s love for excitement and carefree spirit contrast sharply with the Garoghlanian family’s long-standing reputation for honesty and integrity. 

While the family is known for their poverty and unwavering moral principles, Mourad’s behaviour seems contradictory, mainly his stealing a horse. Despite this, Mourad’s actions are portrayed with a sense of innocence and passion for life, highlighting a tension between his individualistic streak and the family’s collective values. 

This contrast adds to Mourad’s character and emphasises the story’s themes of tradition and individuality.

Q2: What is the significance of the horse in Aram’s childhood memories and longings?

A2: The horse fulfils Aram’s deepest childhood dreams and longings. Aram has been fascinated by horses since his earliest memories and yearned to ride one. 

Seeing Mourad on a beautiful white horse ignites his sense of wonder and excitement, making his childhood fantasies tangible. The horse symbolises freedom, adventure, and the extraordinary possibilities of life beyond their impoverished reality. 

Riding the horse with Mourad gives Aram a thrilling escape from his daily life, allowing him to experience a sense of joy and exhilaration that he had always imagined. Thus, the horse is a powerful symbol of his aspirations, innocence, and the magical moments of childhood.

Q3: How does Aram reconcile his family’s strong tradition of honesty with Mourad’s act of stealing the horse?

A3: Aram reconciles his family’s strong tradition of honesty with Mourad’s act of stealing the horse by adopting a nuanced perspective on morality. He rationalises that taking the horse for a ride is different from outright theft, as they have no intention of selling or permanently keeping it. 

This distinction allows Aram to view Mourad’s actions as less severe and more aligned with their love for horses rather than a breach of their ethical standards. Aram’s deep admiration for Mourad and the magical experience of riding the horse blur the lines between right and wrong in his mind. This internal conflict highlights the tension between their ingrained values and the irresistible allure of fulfilling their dreams.

Q4: Describe Mourad’s behaviour and actions when he is with the horse. What does this reveal about his character?

A4: Mourad’s behaviour and actions with the horse reveal his deep connection with animals and his free-spirited nature. He confidently rides and handles the horse, demonstrating a natural affinity and understanding. Mourad’s ability to calm and control the horse, his singing while riding, and his joyful demeanour indicate his profound love for life and adventure. 

He shows a blend of care and recklessness, which is evident when he reassures Aram and effortlessly manages the horse’s wildness. Mourad’s actions reveal a passionate and empathetic character, possessing an innate charm and a sense of freedom that defies conventional constraints. His behaviour emphasises his unique blend of enthusiasm, skill, and a slightly rebellious streak.

Q5: How does Uncle Khosrove’s reaction to John Byro’s complaints about the stolen horse contribute to the story’s humour and themes?

A5: Uncle Khosrove’s exaggerated indifference and comical impatience in response to John Byro’s complaints about the stolen horse contribute to the story’s humour and themes. 

His repeated dismissals—”It is no harm; pay no attention to it”—regardless of the seriousness of the situation, create a humorous contrast to the distress felt by John Byro. The reaction highlights the theme of resilience and perspective within the Garoghlanian family, emphasising their prioritisation of more significant existential concerns over material losses. 

Khosrove’s outbursts and the absurdity of his responses add a layer of fun to the narrative, illustrating how the family’s firm, almost stubborn pride and unique outlook on life allow them to navigate their challenges with humour and stoicism.

Q6: What is the significance of Mourad’s statement, “I have a way with a horse,” and how does this idea play out in the story?

A6: Mourad’s statement, “I have a way with a horse,” signifies his unique talent and deep connection with animals, highlighting his exceptional understanding and empathy. 

This idea plays out in the story through Mourad’s effortless control and calming influence over the stolen horse, which contrasts with Aram’s struggles. Mourad’s confidence and ease with the horse showcase his natural affinity and reinforce the theme of individual gifts within the family. 

His statement also symbolises a broader sense of harmony with nature and life, suggesting that some people possess innate abilities that set them apart. This concept emphasises Mourad’s distinctive character and adds to the narrative’s magical, almost mythical, quality, enhancing the themes of adventure and individuality.

Q7: How do Aram and Mourad handle the situation when they meet John Byro while riding the stolen horse? What does this encounter reveal about their personalities?

A7: When Aram and Mourad encounter John Byro while riding the stolen horse, Mourad confidently takes charge, greeting Byro warmly and allowing him to inspect the horse. Mourad’s calm demeanour and quick thinking defuse the situation, showcasing his resourcefulness and charm. 

Aram remains silent, trusting Mourad’s ability to handle the encounter. This reveals his admiration for Mourad and his nervousness. This encounter reveals Mourad’s boldness, adaptability, and ability to manipulate situations smoothly, reflecting his free-spirited and fearless nature. 

Aram’s behaviour highlights his innocence and reliance on Mourad’s leadership. Together, their actions reveal a dynamic where Mourad’s adventurous confidence complements Aram’s cautious awe, emphasising their contrasting yet harmonious personalities.

Q8: What role does the “crazy streak” play in understanding Mourad and his actions? How is this concept important to the story?

A8: Mourad’s “crazy streak” explains his eccentric, adventurous behaviour, setting him apart from the conventional norms of the Garoghlanian family. This inherited trait links him to their uncle Khosrove, known for his unpredictable temperament. 

The “crazy streak” helps rationalise Mourad’s audacity to steal a horse and his remarkable rapport with animals, highlighting a blend of recklessness and charm. This concept is crucial as it emphasises the family’s complexity, balancing their reputation for honesty with individual quirks. 

It enriches Mourad’s character, making his actions seem more understandable and forgivable. The “crazy streak” thus adds depth to the story, emphasising themes of individuality, family traits, and the tension between societal expectations and personal passions.

Q9: How does the story resolve the conflict of the stolen horse, and what does this resolution suggest about the values and priorities of the Garoghlanian family?

A9: The story resolves the conflict of the stolen horse when Aram and Mourad return it to its rightful owner, John Byro, after two weeks of secret rides. This resolution suggests that honesty and integrity are deeply ingrained in the Garoghlanian family, even amidst moments of temptation and adventure. 

Regardless of their poverty and occasional escapades, they uphold their reputation for honesty. Returning the horse reflects their commitment to doing what is morally right, even if it means sacrificing personal desires. 

This resolution reinforces the importance of familial values and community integrity within the Garoghlanian family, showcasing their resilience in upholding their principles despite the allure of excitement and freedom.

Q10: Discuss the themes of childhood innocence and adventure in the story. How do Aram and Mourad embody these themes through their actions and experiences?

A10: The themes of childhood innocence and adventure permeate the story through Aram and Mourad’s actions and experiences. Aram represents innocence, longing for the thrill of riding a horse and experiencing the world beyond his mundane reality. 

Mourad embodies adventure, fearlessly stealing the horse and leading Aram on exhilarating rides. Together, they navigate the boundaries between right and wrong, driven by their innocent desires for excitement and freedom. Their clandestine rides symbolise a journey into the unknown, where they discover the joys and challenges of self-discovery. 

Despite the risks, their escapades evoke a sense of wonder and discovery, highlighting the transformative power of childhood innocence and the allure of unbridled adventure.

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