Class 12- “Poets And Pancakes” Complete Analysis

Poets And Pancakes,Gemini Studios,Asokamitran,Pancake

“Poets And Pancakes” Summary, MCQs, Important Lines, Textbook Questions/Answers, Extra Questions and Theme.

Also Read: “Interview” Part I by Christopher Silvester , Part II An Interview with Umberto Eco

Vocabulary “Poets And Pancakes”:

  • A coat of mail: The phrase refers to metal armour. The lawyer’s coat may be described as heavy or protective, symbolising their detachment or resilience in conflict or criticism.
  • A.I.R. and Doordarshan: India’s national public radio and television broadcasters.
  • Ananda Vikatan: A popular Tamil-language weekly magazine.
  • Bafflement: A state of perplexity or confusion.
  • Blew over: In this context, the actress’s outburst or anger subsided or passed without causing significant consequences. It suggests that the actress’s emotional outburst settled down after the recording of her tirade.
  • Catapulted into: A rapid and unexpected rise to fame or significance.
  • Conjugal: Related to marriage or the relationship between spouses.
  • Conjuring: The performance of seemingly magical tricks.
  • Counter-movement: A movement that opposes another movement.
  • Devadasis: Women dedicated to serving a deity or temple through performance.
  • Disenchanted: No longer feeling enthusiasm or attraction for something.
  • Disillusioned: Disappointed or disenchanted.
  • Drudge: A person who performs dull, menial, or repetitive work.
  • Eminent: Respected and distinguished.
  • Filial: Relating to the relationship between children and their parents.
  • Heard a bell ringing: This expression suggests a moment of realisation or recognition akin to a symbolic awakening or enlightenment. In the context of the narrator discovering Stephen Spender’s significance, hearing a bell ringing symbolises an epiphany or sudden understanding of the connection between different events or pieces of information.
  • Homilies: Short sermons or moral lessons.
  • Hues: Colours or shades.
  • Ignominy: Public shame or disgrace.
  • Incongruity: Lack of harmony or compatibility between parts.
  • Khadiites: Advocates for using Khadi, a cloth associated with India’s independence.
  • Luminaries: People who inspire or influence others.
  • Moral Re-Armament (MRA): A religious and moral movement.
  • Pancake: (Here)Makeup material used by actors and actresses.
  • Pedestal: A base or support on which something stands.
  • Perplexity: Inability to understand or comprehend something.
  • Perverts: People who behave in a sexually abnormal or deviant manner.
  • Played into their hands: This phrase suggests that specific actions or decisions inadvertently benefited or advanced the interests of a particular group or individuals.
  • Prohibition: Legal prevention of the manufacture, sale, and consumption of alcoholic beverages.
  • Robert Clive: A British military officer who played a significant role in British India.
  • Stephen Spender: An English poet and essayist.
  • Surmise: Suppose that something is true without evidence.
  • Sycophant: A person who acts obsequiously toward someone important.
  • The Encounter: A British periodical hosting a short story contest.
  • The God That Failed: A collection of essays detailing disillusionment with communism.
  • The favorite haunt: A place frequented or often visited by a particular group. In this context, Gemini Studios is described as the favourite haunt of poets and intellectuals, indicating that it was a popular gathering place for individuals interested in literature and the arts.
  • The Hindu: A widely circulated English-language newspaper in India.
  • Gemini Studios: A prominent film studio in Madras, India.
  • Was struck dumb: This expression suggests that the actress was speechless or unable to speak when she heard her voice played back to her through the sound equipment. It indicates a profound shock or realisation on her part.

Summary “Poets And Pancakes” by Ashokamitran :

Poets And Pancakes,Gemini Studios,Asokamitran,Pancake

The excerpt titled “ “Poets and Pancakes” from the book “My Years with Boss” by Asokamitran describes the atmosphere and dynamics within Gemini Studios in Madras, India. The makeup department and its strict hierarchy are portrayed, along with the resentment harboured by some employees towards the management. 

The studio’s encounters with international visitors, including the Moral Re-Armament Army and Stephen Spender, highlight the cultural disparities and the studio’s need for familiarity with figures outside their immediate sphere.

The excerpt concludes with a personal reflection on the significance of encountering Stephen Spender’s writings years later and the interconnectedness of diverse cultural and intellectual realms.

Theme “Poets And Pancakes”

  • An excerpt from the book “My Years with Boss” by Asokamitran vividly portrays a film company’s inner workings and personalities during the early days of Indian cinema. The narrative focuses on Gemini Studios and its eclectic mix of individuals, including poets, writers, actors, and filmmakers. Here are the themes and sub-themes highlighted in the passage:
  • An account of events and personalities in a film company: The passage provides insights into the dynamics, hierarchy, and daily activities within Gemini Studios, shedding light on the roles played by various individuals and their interactions.

Sub-theme:

Poets and writers in a film company environment: The excerpt explores the presence and influence of poets and writers within Gemini Studios. It delves into their backgrounds, creative pursuits, and interactions with other studio members.

Asokamitran’s narrative skillfully captures the atmosphere and ethos of Gemini Studios, offering readers a glimpse into the cultural and creative milieu of early Indian cinema. The passage paints a compelling portrait of a bygone era in the film industry through vivid descriptions and character sketches.

Important Lines “Poets And Pancakes”

  • “Pancake was the brand name of the make-up material that Gemini Studios bought in truck-loads.” – This line introduces the brand name “Pancake” and its significance as the makeup material purchased in large quantities by Gemini Studios. It highlights the importance of makeup in the film industry and indicates the scale of production and use within the studio. The mention of “Pancake” as a brand name adds specificity to the description of makeup practices within Gemini Studios.
  • “A strict hierarchy was maintained in the makeup department.” This line highlights the structured organisation within the makeup department of Gemini Studios, where seniority determined which actors and actresses received attention first.
  • “He wasn’t exactly a ‘boy’; he was in his early forties, having entered the studios years ago in the hope of becoming a star actor or a top screenwriter, director or lyrics writer.” – This passage describes the disillusionment of the office boy in the make-up department, who had once harboured ambitions of success in the film industry but found himself relegated to a subordinate role.
  • “He was a bit of a poet.” – This line characterises the office boy in the make-up department as someone with poetic inclinations, adding depth to his personality beyond his menial job.
  • “All this shows that there was a great deal of national integration long before A.I.R. and Doordarshan began broadcasting programmes on national integration.” – This line emphasises the theme of national integration within Gemini Studios and suggests that the studio reflected a sense of unity and cooperation among people from diverse cultural backgrounds even before national integration programs were broadcasted on significant platforms like All India Radio (A.I.R.) and Doordarshan. 

It highlights the idea that the film industry played a role in fostering a sense of unity and collaboration among individuals of different backgrounds during that period.

  • “In all instances of frustration, you will always find the anger directed towards a single person openly or covertly…” – This statement reflects the common human tendency to direct frustration and resentment towards a specific individual, as observed in the make-up department where blame was placed on Kothamangalam Subbu for various grievances.
  • “This gang of nationally integrated make-up men could turn any decent-looking person into a hideous crimson-hued monster…” – Here, the excerpt illustrates the transformative power of the make-up department, humorously suggesting that their skills could make even attractive individuals appear grotesque on screen.
  • “Gemini Studios was the favorite haunt of poets like S.D.S.Yogiar, Sangu Subramanyam, Krishna Sastry and Harindranath Chattopadhyaya.” – This line highlights the presence of poets and intellectuals within Gemini Studios, showcasing a cultural aspect of the film industry during that time.
  • “Such notions which prevailed everywhere else in South India at that time also, naturally, floated about vaguely among the khadi-clad poets of Gemini Studios.” – This statement discusses the prevailing attitudes towards Communism among the intellectuals of Gemini Studios, demonstrating their ideological biases and misconceptions.
  • “The Boss of the Gemini Studios may not have much to do with Spender’s poetry. But not with his god that failed.” – This final line suggests that while the head of Gemini Studios may not have been interested in Stephen Spender’s poetry, he was undoubtedly affected by the poet’s disillusionment with Communism, symbolised by “his god that failed.” This reflects broader ideological shifts and influences within the studio and society at large
  • “A Communist was a godless man — he had no filial or conjugal love; he had no compunction about killing his own parents or his children; he was always out to cause and spread unrest and violence among innocent and ignorant people.” – The passage mentioned above represents a certain perspective prevalent among the khadi-clad poets of Gemini Studios and the broader South Indian society during a particular era. It presents a view of Communists as morally bankrupt and violent individuals, which some may argue is an extreme and distorted portrayal.
  • “Stephen Spender! Suddenly the book assumed tremendous significance.” – This line marks a pivotal moment for the narrator, who realises the significance of Stephen Spender’s visit to Gemini Studios upon discovering Spender’s contribution to The God That Failed. It represents an epiphany regarding the connection between the studio’s reaction to Spender and broader ideological currents.
  • “The reaction to Stephen Spender at Gemini Studios was no longer a mystery.” – This statement highlights the narrator’s newfound understanding of the studio’s response to Stephen Spender’s visit, linking it to Spender’s disillusionment with Communism as articulated in The God That Failed. It suggests a deeper layer of intellectual engagement and ideological influence within the studio beyond mere appearances.
  • “He was tailor-made for films. Here was a man who could be inspired when commanded.” – This line describes Kothamangalam Subbu’s adaptability and readiness to fulfil the demands of the film industry. It highlights his ability to thrive in the hierarchical and directive environment of Gemini Studios, where external commands and expectations often shaped creative output.
  • “Subbu had a separate identity as a poet and though he was certainly capable of more complex and higher forms, he deliberately chose to address his poetry to the masses.” – This passage delves into the dual identity of Kothamangalam Subbu as both a filmmaker and a poet. It highlights his deliberate decision to cater to a broader audience with his poetry, reflecting his commitment to accessibility and popular appeal over more esoteric or niche forms of expression.
  • “His success in films overshadowed and dwarfed his literary achievements — or so his critics felt.” – This line captures the tension between Kothamangalam Subbu’s success in the film industry and his stature as a poet. It highlights the perception that his cinematic accomplishments eclipsed his literary contributions, a source of contention among his critics and admirers.
  • “Stephen Spender, the poet who had visited Gemini Studios! In a moment I felt a dark chamber of my mind lit up by a hazy illumination.” – This statement signifies the narrator’s profound realisation upon discovering Stephen Spender’s significance beyond his visit to Gemini Studios. It symbolises a moment of intellectual awakening and recognition of broader connections between literature, politics, and personal experiences.
  • “He always had work for somebody — he could never do things on his own — but his sense of loyalty made him identify himself with his principal completely and turn his entire creativity to his principal’s advantage.” – This line describes Kothamangalam Subbu’s loyalty and dedication to his superiors in Gemini Studios, highlighting his willingness to prioritise the studio’s interests above his creative ambitions.
  • “The legal adviser, who was also a member of the Story Department, had unwittingly brought about that sad end.” – This passage refers to the unintended consequences of the legal adviser’s actions, which led to the downfall of an actress’s career. It highlights the power dynamics and ethical dilemmas within the studio environment, where legal considerations intersect with personal and professional relationships.
  • “Then one day The Boss closed down the Story Department and this was perhaps the only instance in all human history where a lawyer lost his job because the poets were asked to go home.” – The line highlights the closure of the Story Department at Gemini Studios which led to a lawyer losing his job. This decision reflects the changing priorities and dynamics within the studio environment, where departments are subject to changes based on the studio’s needs and circumstances.
  • “And there were copies of The Encounter lying about in various degrees of freshness, almost untouched by readers.” This observation reflects the lack of interest or engagement with foreign periodicals like The Encounter among readers in Madras during that period. It highlights the limited exposure to international literary and intellectual currents within certain segments of Indian society.
  • “When Frank Buchman’s Moral Re-Armament army, some two hundred strong, visited Madras sometime in 1952…” – This line refers to the visit of Frank Buchman’s Moral Re-Armament (MRA) army to Madras in 1952. The MRA was a movement founded by Frank Buchman that aimed to promote moral and spiritual renewal to address societal and global challenges. Their visit to Madras, as described in the excerpt, suggests the influence and impact of such movements on the cultural and intellectual landscape of the time.

Textbook Questions/ Answers “Poets And Pancakes”

Think As You Read: 

Q1: What does the writer mean by ‘the fiery misery’ of those subjected to make-up’? 

A1: The writer refers to the “fiery misery” of those subjected to make-up to emphasise the discomfort and unpleasantness caused by the intense lighting and the application of heavy make-up, particularly under the incandescent lights used in the make-up room. The lights generated a lot of heat, making applying makeup uncomfortable for the actors and actresses.

Q2 What is the example of national integration that the author refers to? 

A2: The example of national integration that the author refers to is the composition of the make-up department staff at Gemini Studios. The department was headed by individuals from different regions and linguistic backgrounds, including a Bengali, a Maharashtrian, a Dharwar Kannadiga, an Andhra, a Madras Indian Christian, an Anglo-Burmese, and local Tamils. 

Despite their diverse backgrounds, they worked together harmoniously, showcasing a form of national integration that preceded official broadcasts on the theme.

Q3: What work did the ‘office boy’ do in the Gemini Studios? Why did he join the studios? Why was he disappointed? 

A3: The “office boy” in the Gemini Studios’ make-up department was responsible for applying make-up to the crowd players. He joined the studios to become a star actor, screenwriter, director, and lyricist. Still, he was disappointed as he was assigned menial tasks such as mixing paint and applying make-up to the crowd players. Despite being in his early forties, he had yet to achieve the success he had hoped for in the film industry.

Q4: Why did the author appear to be doing nothing at the studios?

A4: The author appeared to be doing nothing at the studios because he was often seen tearing up newspapers at his desk. This activity made others, including the Boss, think that he was not engaged in productive work. Consequently, whenever someone felt he should be given some occupation, they would interrupt him with extended lectures. The author preferred crowd-shooting days as they provided a reprieve from such interruptions.

Q5: Why was the office boy frustrated? Who did he show his anger on? 

A5: The office boy in the makeup department was frustrated because he felt that his literary talent was being wasted in a department he deemed fit only for barbers and perverts. He showed anger at Kothamangalam Subbu, the No. 2 at Gemini Studios.

Q6: Who was Subbu’s principal? 

A6: Subbu’s principal was implied to be the head of Gemini Studios, referred to as “The Boss” in the excerpt.

Q7: Subbu is described as a many-sided genius. List four of his special abilities. 

A7: Subbu is described as a many-sided genius with several unique abilities:

  • He could contribute creatively to film productions, including suggesting alternative scenes and ideas.
  • He was an accomplished poet known for addressing his poetry to the masses.
  • He wrote a sprawling novel titled “Thillana Mohanambal” with well-etched characters.
  • Subbu was a fantastic actor, capable of outperforming even the lead actors in subsidiary roles.

Q8: Why was the legal adviser referred to as the opposite by others? 

A8: The legal adviser was referred to as “the opposite” because while officially known as the legal adviser, he was more known for recording incidents and potentially causing adverse effects, such as inadvertently ending a brilliant acting career.

Q9: What made the lawyer stand out from the others at Gemini Studios? 

A9: The lawyer stood out from others at Gemini Studios because of his attire and demeanour. While others wore khadi and were associated with Gandhian principles, the lawyer wore pants, a tie, and sometimes a coat, which made him appear like a man of cold logic amidst dreamers. He was also called alone and helpless, indicating his contrasting presence in the studio environment.

Q10: Did the people at Gemini Studios have any particular political affiliations? 

A10: The people at Gemini Studios generally leaned towards a Gandhian and Congress ideology, as evidenced by their preference for khadi clothing and their aversion to communism.

Q11: Why was the Moral Rearmament Army welcomed at the Studios? 

A11: The Moral Rearmament Army (MRA) was welcomed at the Studios because their plays, despite being somewhat amateurish, presented professional performances that impressed the Tamil drama community. The plays had good sets and costumes, and their simple message resonated with the audience.

Q12: Name one example to show that Gemini Studios was influenced by the plays staged by MRA. 

A12: One example showing the influence of the plays produced by MRA on Gemini Studios is the incorporation of scenes depicting sunrise and sunset in many Tamil plays following the style of ‘Jotham Valley’ by MRA.

Q13: Who was The Boss of Gemini Studios? 

A13: The Boss of Gemini Studios was S.S. Vasan. He founded Gemini Studios and significantly shaped the Indian film industry during its early days.

Q14: What caused the lack of communication between the Englishman and the people at Gemini Studios? 

A14: The lack of communication between the Englishman and the people at Gemini Studios can be attributed to several factors, including cultural differences, language barriers, and the unfamiliarity of the Gemini staff with the Englishman’s background and work.

Q15:  Why is the Englishman’s visit referred to as unexplained mystery? 

A15: The Englishman’s visit to Gemini Studios is referred to as an unexplained mystery because his presence and speech seemed inconsistent with the environment and interests of the people at the studio. His talk about the experiences of an English poet in a Tamil film studio was bewildering and left the audience baffled, as they could not relate to his subject matter or understand his accent.

Q16: Who was the English visitor to the studios? 

A16: The English visitor to the studios was Stephen Spender.

Q17: How did the author discover who the English visitor to the studios was? 

A17: The author found who the English visitor to the studios was when he came across a book titled “The God That Failed” on sale for fifty paise each on the footpath in front of the Madras Mount Road Post Office. This book contained essays by six eminent writers, one of whom was Stephen Spender, the same poet who had visited Gemini Studios.

Q18: What does The God that Failed refer to? 

A18: The God That Failed” refers to a book containing essays by six eminent writers who once supported communism but later became disillusioned with it. These writers recounted their personal experiences and reasons for abandoning communism in their essays.

Understanding the text:

Q1: The author has used gentle humour to point out human foibles. Pick out instances of this to show how this serves to make the piece interesting.

A1: The author employs gentle humour to point out human foibles throughout the piece. 

  • The description of the make-up department and its transformation of decent-looking individuals into hideous monsters with truck-loads of pancake and other potions and lotions.
  • The portrayal of the “office boy” in the make-up department who harboured dreams of becoming a star actor or a top screenwriter, director, or lyrics writer despite being in his early forties. This adds a touch of irony to his character.
  • The author’s experience of being subjected to extended lectures by the make-up department “boy” and his relief when praying for crowd-shooting to avoid such encounters.
  • The depiction of Subbu’s demeanour and his ability to always look cheerful, even after facing difficulties, contrasts with the frustrations of the make-up department employee.
  • The irony is that a lawyer, part of the Story Department, inadvertently ends a brilliant acting career by recording an actress’s tirade.

These instances of gentle humour add depth to the narrative and make it more engaging for the reader.

Q2: Why was Kothamangalam Subbu considered No. 2 in Gemini Studios?

A2: Kothamangalam Subbu was considered No. 2 in Gemini Studios because he played a significant role in the studio’s operations and creative endeavours. Despite his background and challenges, Subbu demonstrated loyalty to his principal (presumably the Boss of Gemini Studios) and dedicated his creativity to the studio’s advantage. His ability to generate ideas, provide inspiration, and contribute to the success of Gemini Studios made him a pivotal figure, earning him the position of No. 2.

Q3: How does the author describe the incongruity of an English poet addressing the audience at Gemini Studios?

A3: The author describes the incongruity of an English poet addressing the audience at Gemini Studios by highlighting the stark differences in cultural context and audience interests. The Gemini Studios primarily produced Tamil films for a simple audience whose lives didn’t afford them the luxury of cultivating a taste for English poetry. 

The author and others at the studio are still trying to understand the presence of the English poet, reflecting the sheer mismatch between the audience’s expectations and the poet’s discourse. This mismatch highlights the situation’s absurdity and adds a layer of irony to the narrative.

Q4. What do you understand about the author’s literary inclinations from the account?

A4: From the account, it’s evident that the author has literary inclinations and a keen interest in exploring the intersection of literature, cinema, and human experiences. 

The author’s engagement with literature is reflected in his curiosity about British publications, recognition of Stephen Spender’s significance, and reflections on the nature of prose writing and its relation to genius. 

The author’s observations on the dynamics within Gemini Studios, including the roles of individuals like Subbu and the encounters with visiting poets and editors, highlight his interest in exploring the complexities of human interactions and creative endeavours.

Extra Questions “Poets And Pancakes” by Ashokamitran: 

Q1: How did the make-up department operate in Gemini Studios during the early days of Indian cinema?

A1: During the early days of Indian cinema, the make-up department at Gemini Studios operated with a diverse team of professionals from various regions of India. They used truckloads of pancake and locally made potions and lotions to transform actors and actresses. 

The process involved closing every pore on the face’s surface with heavy makeup. A strict hierarchy was maintained in the department, with different members responsible for making actors and actresses ugly based on their roles.

Q2: What were the conditions for indoor shooting in the early days of Indian cinema at Gemini Studios?

A2: In the early days of Indian cinema at Gemini Studios, indoor shooting was predominant, with only five per cent of the film being shot outdoors. The sets and studio lights required actors and actresses to undergo heavy make-up to look presentable on screen.

Q3: How does the make-up process described in the excerpt contrast with today’s film technology?

A3: The make-up process described in the excerpt relied heavily on a manual application using truckloads of pancake and locally made potions and lotions. It involved closing every pore on the face’s surface with heavy make-up, requiring a large team of make-up artists. 

In contrast, today’s film technology often utilises advanced techniques such as prosthetics, CGI (Computer Generated Imagery), and high-definition make-up products that are more lightweight and natural-looking. 

Modern films may incorporate outdoor shooting more frequently due to advancements in camera technology and location scouting.

Q4: What was the hierarchy like in the makeup department at Gemini Studios?

A4: In the makeup department, there was a strict hierarchy where the chief makeup artist worked on the main actors and actresses, while the senior and junior assistants handled other roles such as the second hero or heroine and the main comedian, respectively. The office boy took care of the crowd players.

Q5: How does the excerpt describe Kothamangalam Subbu and his role at Gemini Studios?

A5: Kothamangalam Subbu was described as a significant figure at Gemini Studios. He was talented in various aspects of filmmaking and had a separate identity as a poet. He was known for his loyalty to his principal and his ability to generate creative ideas for the benefit of the studio.

Q6: What is the significance of the visit by the Moral Re-Armament Army to Gemini Studios?

A6: The visit by the Moral Re-Armament Army to Gemini Studios indicates the studio’s openness to different ideologies and movements. It also reflects the influence of larger societal and political trends on the entertainment industry during that time.

Q7: Who is Stephen Spender, and what connection does he have to Gemini Studios?

A7: Stephen Spender is an English poet and editor who visited Gemini Studios. His visit remains a mystery to the staff, and the narrator later discovers his significance through his writings, particularly his essay in the book “The God That Failed.” This revelation sheds light on the reaction to Spender’s visit to Gemini Studios.

Q8: How does the narrative examine the theme of artistic integrity versus commercial success within Gemini Studios?

A8: The narrative juxtaposes the creative aspirations of individuals like Kothamangalam Subbu with the commercial imperatives of Gemini Studios. Subbu’s multifaceted talents and genuine love for his craft contrast with the studio’s profit-driven approach to filmmaking. 

This tension between artistic integrity and commercial viability highlights broader themes of authenticity, compromise, and pursuing creative vision in a commercial industry.

Q9: What insights does the narrative offer into the socio-political landscape of 20th-century Madras?

A9: The narrative provides glimpses into the socio-political milieu of 20th-century Madras through references to Congress rule, Prohibition, and prevailing attitudes towards Communism. 

The narrative sheds light on the diverse ideological currents shaping the era’s cultural landscape by depicting interactions between studio personnel, visiting dignitaries, and political movements like Moral Re-Armament.

Q10: How does the narrative use anecdotal accounts and character sketches to convey more significant thematic concerns?

A10: Through anecdotal accounts and vivid character sketches, the narrative illuminates more significant thematic concerns such as ambition, identity, and pursuing artistic fulfilment. Characters like Kothamangalam Subbu, the makeup department “boy“, and visiting poets embody various facets of the human experience within the context of Gemini Studios, offering insights into the complexities of creativity, ambition, and interpersonal dynamics.

Q11: What specific actions did the studio take that were driven solely by commercial imperatives?

A11: Several actions the studio took were driven solely by commercial imperatives:

  • Bulk Purchase of Pancake Makeup: The studio invested heavily in pancake makeup to ensure high appearance standards for actors and actresses in their films.
  • Diverse Makeup Department: Gemini Studios maintained a makeup department with diverse staff to appeal to a broader audience and expand market reach.
  • Makeup Application Hierarchy: A strict hierarchy in makeup application ensured efficient use of resources and maximised effectiveness, enhancing the quality of films.
  • Hosting Events: The studio hosted events to enhance its reputation and attract collaborations, such as visits from international groups like the Moral Re-Armament Army and a British poet/editor.
  • Closure of the Story Department: Driven by commercial considerations, the closure of the Story Department reflected strategic decisions aimed at maximising profitability and maintaining competitiveness in the film industry.

These actions reflect Gemini Studios’ strategic decisions aimed at maximising profitability and maintaining competitiveness in the film industry.

MCQs “Poets And Pancakes”:

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