Class 10-“From the Diary of Anne Frank” Analysis

Class 10-“From the Diary of Anne Frank” Analysis

Chapter 4, Anne Frank’s “From the Diary of Anne Frank” Summary, Character Sketch, Theme, Important Passages, Questions Answers with Extra Questions.

Chapter 4- From the Diary of Anne Frank:

Next on First Flight: Poem 6- “Amanda!” by Robin Klein


  • Brooding: Showing deep unhappiness of thought.
  • Confide: To trust someone with private or secret information.
  • Emigrated: To leave one’s own country to settle permanently in another.
  • Fogey: An old-fashioned or conservative person, typically one who is overly concerned with tradition or etiquette.
  • Forthcoming: About to happen or appear; approaching in time.
  • Incorrigible: Not able to be corrected, improved, or reformed.
  • Ingenuity: Cleverness or originality in thinking.
  • Listless: Lacking energy or enthusiasm.
  • Liable: likely or inclined to do something.
  • Musings: Thoughts or reflections, especially when aimless.
  • Occupation: The control and administration of a country by a foreign military force.
  • Persecutions: Systematic mistreatment or harassment of individuals or groups.
  • Plunged: Suddenly thrust or thrown into a particular situation or state.
  • Quaking: Trembling or shaking with fear or nervousness.
  • Solemn: Formal and dignified; not cheerful or smiling; serious.
  • Stake: To risk or wager a sum of money or something valued on the outcome of an event or a contest.

Historical Background:

During the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands in World War II, Jewish citizens were subjected to discrimination and violence. To evade deportation to concentration camps, some families went into hiding, including Anne Frank and her family. Anne’s diary entries provide a firsthand account of daily life in hiding, highlighting the challenges, fears, and hopes of those constantly threatened by discovery. Studying this chapter offers valuable insights into this dark period of history and promotes reflection on the importance of tolerance, empathy, and resistance to injustice.

Summary “From the Diary of Anne Frank”:

The excerpt from “The Diary of a Young Girl“, titled “From the Diary of Anne Frank”, depicts Anne’s candid reflections on her life as a thirteen-year-old girl hiding from the Nazis during World War II. She expresses her loneliness despite having a loving family and superficial friendships. Anne reveals her desire for a true friend, leading her to start writing in her diary, whom she calls “Kitty.” The diary entry then transitions to Anne discussing her interactions with her teachers, particularly Mr Keesing, and how she cleverly fulfils her chatterbox assignment. Through Anne’s words, readers gain insight into her intelligence, wit, and resilience amidst the challenges of living in hiding.

Theme “From the Diary of Anne Frank”:

Anne Frank’s Diary: Helming/Navigating Isolation with Resilience: 

The excerpt “Diary of Anne Frank” reveals themes of isolation, resilience, and the search for identity amidst adversity. Anne’s candid reflections depict the deep loneliness she experiences despite outwardly having family and acquaintances. Her desire for a genuine connection drives her to confide in her diary, personified as her friend “Kitty.” Despite the limitations of her circumstances, Anne demonstrates resilience by finding creative ways to cope, such as through writing and humour.

Her defiance against authority figures, like her teacher, Mr Keesing, showcases her spirited nature and refusal to be silenced. Through her introspective musings and spirited defiance, Anne navigates adolescence and the harsh realities of life under Nazi occupation.

Character Sketch: Anne Frank:

Based on the excerpt, Anne Frank emerges as a complex and reflective character, grappling with the challenges of adolescence and the harsh realities of living in hiding during the Holocaust. Let’s go through Anne Frank’s character sketch in more detail. 

  • Introspective and Reflective: Anne’s diary entries demonstrate a deep introspective nature. She reflects on her thoughts and feelings, pondering the significance of her experiences and the world around her.
  • Lonely yet Resilient: Despite feeling isolated, Anne exhibits resilience in the face of adversity. She copes with her loneliness by expressing herself through writing, using her diary as a confidante and outlet for her emotions.
  • Creative and Witty: Anne’s creativity and wit shine through in her interactions, particularly with her teacher, Mr. Keesing. She approaches challenges with ingenuity, finding humorous solutions to difficult situations.
  • Defiant and Spirited: Anne displays a spirited defiance against authority, as seen in her humorous response to Mr. Keesing’s assignment. She refuses to be silenced or discouraged, using her intelligence and resourcefulness to overcome obstacles.
  • Seeking Identity and Connection: Anne grapples with a desire for genuine connection and understanding. Despite having family and acquaintances, she longs for a true friend with whom she can share her innermost thoughts and feelings.
  • Maturing Adolescent: Through her diary entries, Anne navigates the complexities of adolescence, grappling with issues of identity, friendship, and independence. Her writings reflect the universal experiences of growing up while also highlighting the unique challenges posed by the Holocaust.
  • Empathetic and Observant: Anne demonstrates empathy towards others, as seen in her reflections on the plight of her classmates and the mistreatment of Jews under Nazi occupation. She is observant of the world around her, keenly aware of the injustices and hardships she faces.
  • Optimistic Despite Circumstances: Anne maintains a sense of optimism and resilience despite the challenging circumstances of her life in hiding. She finds moments of joy and humour amidst the darkness, refusing to succumb to despair.

Anne Frank is portrayed as a complex and spirited young girl who navigates the challenges of adolescence and the harsh realities of war with courage, humour, and a profound sense of self-awareness.

Important Passages/Lines: 

1. “Writing in a diary is a really strange experience for someone like me… I feel like writing, and I have an even greater need to get all kinds of things off my chest.” This passage reflects Anne’s initial hesitation and uncertainty about writing in a diary. She acknowledges the strangeness of the experience, especially since she has never written anything before. However, she expresses a strong internal need to write and release her thoughts and emotions, indicating that writing serves as a form of catharsis for her.

2. “‘Paper has more patience than people.’ I thought of this saying… it probably won’t make a bit of difference.” Anne reflects on the saying “Paper has more patience than people,” suggesting that writing in a diary allows her to express herself without fear of judgment or interruption. She acknowledges that she doesn’t expect anyone else to read her diary, emphasising the private and personal nature of her writing. Despite this, she still finds value in recording her thoughts and experiences.

3. “Now I’m back to the point that prompted me to keep a diary in the first place: I don’t have a friend. Anne reveals the underlying motivation behind her decision to keep a diary: loneliness. Despite having family and acquaintances, she feels a profound lack of a true friend with whom she can confide and share her innermost thoughts. This sense of isolation prompts her to seek solace in writing, using the diary as a substitute for the friendship she longs for.

4. “Let me put it more clearly… Unfortunately they’re not liable to change. This is why I’ve started the diary.” Anne clarifies that while she may have superficial relationships and connections, she lacks the deep, meaningful friendship she desires. She acknowledges the unlikelihood of her circumstances changing, leading her to believe that writing in the diary is her only recourse for finding solace and companionship. This passage highlights the diary’s role as a confidant and companion in Anne’s life.

5. “To enhance the image of this long-awaited friend in my imagination… I want the diary to be my friend, and I’m going to call this friend ‘Kitty’.” Anne decides to personify her diary, attributing to it the qualities of a friend. By naming her diary ‘Kitty’, she humanises it and creates an imaginary confidant to whom she can freely express herself. This act reflects Anne’s longing for companionship and her desire to establish a deep connection, even with an inanimate object.

6. “Since no one would understand a word of my stories to Kitty if I were to plunge right in… much as I dislike doing so.” Anne acknowledges that simply diving into her stories without context may not be understandable to her imaginary friend, Kitty. This realisation prompts her to provide background information about her life and experiences, laying the foundation for a deeper understanding between herself and her diary. Despite her reluctance to delve into personal details, she recognises the necessity of doing so to establish a meaningful relationship with her diary.

7. “My father, the most adorable father I’ve ever seen… when I was plunked down on the table as a birthday present for Margot.” Anne fondly describes her father as “the most adorable father” she has ever seen, highlighting her deep affection and admiration for him. The anecdote about being presented as a birthday gift for her sister, Margot, highlights the close bond within her family and the loving dynamics between its members. This passage offers insight into Anne’s familial relationships and provides context for her upbringing.

8. “I started right away at the Montessori nursery school… we were both in tears as we said a heartbreaking farewell.” Anne reminisces about her time at the Montessori nursery school and recalls the emotional farewell she shared with her teacher, Mrs Kuperus. The description of both Anne and her teacher being in tears emphasises the depth of their connection and the impact of their relationship on Anne’s life. This passage illustrates Anne’s sensitivity, emotional awareness, and the significance of her early educational experiences.

10. “The four of us are still doing well… and the solemn dedication of my diary.” Anne provides an update on her family’s well-being, indicating they are still doing relatively well despite their challenges. This statement suggests resilience and optimism in the face of adversity. Anne also mentions the dedication of her diary, highlighting the solemnity with which she approaches the act of writing and the significance she attaches to documenting her experiences during this tumultuous time.

11. “Dearest Kitty… Until then, we keep telling each other not to lose heart.” Anne addresses her diary as “Dearest Kitty,” reinforcing the idea of the diary as her confidant and companion. She expresses solidarity with her diary, using inclusive language like “we” to emphasise the bond between herself and her writing. Anne’s encouragement to “not lose heart” reflects her determination to persevere despite difficulties, indicating her resilience and hope for the future.

12. “I get along pretty well with all my teachers… I’d worry about that later, I decided.” Anne reflects on her relationships with her teachers, indicating that she gets along well with all of them. This statement suggests Anne’s adaptability and ability to navigate social dynamics within her school environment. Her decision to postpone worrying about her interactions with her teachers highlights her pragmatic approach to managing her concerns and priorities. This passage provides insight into Anne’s interpersonal skills and coping mechanisms.

13. “That evening, after I’d finished the rest of my homework… I argued that talking is a student’s trait.” Anne describes completing her homework and then pondering the topic assigned by her teacher, Mr. Keesing, which is to write an essay on the subject of “A Chatterbox.” She reflects on the nature of talking and argues that it is a characteristic trait of students. This passage reveals Anne’s critical thinking skills and ability to engage thoughtfully with the assigned topic.

14. “Mr Keesing had a good laugh at my arguments… he assigned me a second essay.” After submitting her essay on “A Chatterbox,” Anne recounts Mr. Keesing’s response, indicating that he found her arguments amusing. Despite Mr. Keesing’s amusement, he assigns Anne a second essay, suggesting he is unsatisfied with her initial response. This passage highlights Anne’s willingness to engage with her teacher’s feedback and perseverance in completing the assigned tasks.

15. “I finished my poem, and it was beautiful!… Since then I’ve been allowed to talk and haven’t been assigned any extra homework.” Anne expresses satisfaction with her subsequent essay, which she writes as a poem. She describes it as “beautiful,” indicating her pride in her creative work. Anne then reveals that since submitting this poem, she has not been assigned any extra homework by Mr. Keesing. This passage showcases Anne’s creativity and resourcefulness in fulfilling academic requirements and the positive outcome of her efforts in engaging with her teacher’s assignments.

16. “Half the class is making bets. G.N. and I laugh ourselves silly at the two boys behind us… If you ask me, there are so many dummies that about a quarter of the class should be kept back…” This passage provides a glimpse into the social dynamics within Anne’s classroom, showing how she and her friend G.N. react to the behaviour of their classmates. Anne’s observation about “dummies” in the class and her suggestion that a quarter of them should be kept back demonstrates her candidness and willingness to express her opinions. The passage highlights Anne’s perception of her peers and her tendency to engage in light-hearted banter.

17. “The class roared. I had to laugh too, though I’d nearly exhausted my ingenuity on the topic of chatterboxes… My friend, Sanne, who’s good at poetry, offered to help me write the essay from beginning to end in verse and I jumped for joy.” Anne’s reaction to the assignment on “chatterboxes” showcases her sense of humour and resourcefulness. Her willingness to collaborate with her friend Sanne demonstrates her ability to seek help and work collaboratively to overcome challenges. This passage also reveals Anne’s enjoyment of creative tasks, as she jumps for joy at the opportunity to write the essay in verse. This passage highlights Anne’s adaptability and creative thinking skills.

18. “I argued that talking is a student’s trait and that I would do my best to keep it under control, but that I would never be able to cure myself of the habit since my mother talked as much as I did if not more…” Anne offers a humorous defence of her talkative nature in this passage, drawing a parallel between herself and her mother. Her argument that talking is a student’s trait reflects her ability to justify her behaviour with wit and self-awareness.

Anne’s acknowledgement that she may be unable to control her talking habit fully adds depth to her character, showcasing her honesty and acceptance of her flaws. (From an examination standpoint) This passage demonstrates Anne’s ability to articulate her thoughts and present logical arguments.

19. “Luckily, Mr. Keesing took the joke the right way. He read the poem to the class, adding his own comments, and to several other classes as well… Since then I’ve been allowed to talk and haven’t been assigned any extra homework.” Anne’s recounting of Mr. Keesing’s reaction to her poem highlights the positive outcome of her creative approach to the assignment. Mr Keesing’s appreciation for Anne’s ingenuity suggests that he values creativity and originality in his students’ work.

The fact that Anne has not been assigned any extra homework since then implies that Mr Keesing recognises and rewards Anne’s efforts, fostering a positive relationship between teacher and student. This passage highlights Anne’s ability to use creativity to overcome academic challenges and garner recognition from authority figures, which is relevant from an examination perspective.

Question Answers “From the Diary of Anne Frank”

Oral Comprehension Check:

Q1: What makes writing in a diary a strange experience for Anne Frank?

A1: Writing in a diary is a strange experience for Anne Frank because she has never written anything. She questions whether anyone, including herself, will be interested in the musings of a thirteen-year-old schoolgirl. Anne feels compelled to write and express her thoughts and emotions despite her doubts.

Q2: Why does Anne want to keep a diary?

A2: Anne wants to keep a diary to confide in someone and get things off her chest. She feels lonely and lacks a true friend with whom to share her innermost thoughts and feelings. The diary becomes a way for her to cope with her isolation and find solace in expressing herself.

Q3: Why did Anne think she could confide more in her diary than in people?

A3: Anne thinks she can confide more in her diary than in people because she feels that paper has more patience than people. She believes her diary will listen without judgment or interruption, giving her a safe space to express herself freely and openly without fear of repercussions.

Q4:  Why does Anne provide a brief sketch of her life? 

A4: Anne provides a brief sketch of her life to provide context for her diary entries and to help her imaginary friend, whom she calls “Kitty,” understand her experiences and background. By sharing details about her family, upbringing, and significant events in her life, Anne lays the foundation for a deeper connection with her diary.

Q5: What tells you that Anne loved her grandmother? 

A5: Anne’s expression of love for her grandmother is evident in her recollection of her grandmother falling ill in the summer of 1941 and passing away in January 1942. Despite the lack of elaborate celebrations for her birthday during her grandmother’s illness, Anne reflects on her love for her grandmother and the impact of her absence. Anne’s continued thoughts of her grandmother and the inclusion of her candle in the birthday celebration in 1942 demonstrate the depth of Anne’s affection and the significance of her grandmother in her life.

Q6: Why was Mr Keesing annoyed with Anne? What did he ask her to do? 

A6: Mr. Keesing was annoyed with Anne because she talked too much in class. As a result, he assigned her extra homework, specifically an essay on “A Chatterbox.”

Q7: How did Anne justify her being a chatterbox in her essay? 

A7: Anne justified her being a chatterbox in her essay by arguing that talking is a student’s trait and that she would do her best to keep it under control. She further explained that she inherited the habit from her mother, implying that it was a natural characteristic rather than a deliberate choice.

Q8: Do you think Mr Keesing was a strict teacher? 

A8: Mr Keesing can be considered a strict teacher based on his initial reaction to Anne’s talkative behaviour. However, his response to Anne’s essays also demonstrates a sense of humour and appreciation for creativity. While initially assigning her extra homework, he allows her to talk in class and does not punish her further for her chatter.

Q9: What made Mr Keesing allow Anne to talk in class?

A9: Mr. Keesing allowed Anne to talk in class after she wrote a humorous poem in response to his assignment. Her creativity and ingenuity in fulfilling the task amused him, leading him to read the poem to the class and other classes. This positive response from Mr Keesing likely made him more lenient towards Anne’s talkative nature and resulted in him no longer assigning her extra homework.

Thinking About The Text:

Q1: Was Anne right when she said that the world would not be interested in the musings of a thirteen-year-old girl?

A1: Anne’s statement that the world was not interested in the musings of a thirteen-year-old girl is proven wrong by the enduring popularity and impact of her diary. Despite her initial doubts, Anne’s diary has become one of the most widely read and studied accounts of the Holocaust, providing valuable insights into the experiences of a young Jewish girl during World War II.

Q2: There are some examples of diary or journal entries in the ‘Before You Read’ section. Compare these with what Anne writes in her diary. What language was the diary originally written in? In what way is Anne’s diary different?

A2: The few prior examples of diary entries in the ‘Before You Read’ section are in English. Anne’s diary, however, was originally written in Dutch. Anne’s diary differs from typical diary entries in that she personifies her diary, calling it “Kitty,” and writes to it as if it were a friend. Anne’s diary contains introspective reflections, personal experiences, and candid observations about life in hiding during the Holocaust. In contrast, other diary entries may delve less deeply into individual thoughts and emotions.

Q3: Why does Anne need to give a brief sketch about her family? Does she treat ‘Kitty’ as an insider or an outsider?

A3: Anne provides a brief sketch of family to contextualise her diary entries and help Kitty, her imagined confidant, understand her background and experiences. She treats Kitty as an insider, confiding in her and sharing personal details about her life, thoughts, and feelings as if Kitty were a trusted friend.

Q4: How does Anne feel about her father, her grandmother, Mrs Kuperus and Mr Keesing? What do these tell you about her?

A4: Anne expresses deep love and admiration for her father, describing him as the most adorable father she has ever seen. Despite any initial conflicts or misunderstandings, she also demonstrates affection and fondness for her grandmother, Mrs. Kuperus, and Mr. Keesing. These relationships reveal Anne’s capacity for love, empathy, respect for others, and her ability to form meaningful connections with those around her despite her challenges.

Q5: What does Anne write in her first essay?

A5: In her first essay, Anne writes about the topic assigned by Mr. Keesing, which is “A Chatterbox.” She reflects on the nature of talking and argues that it is a student’s trait. Anne justifies her talkative behaviour by stating that she inherited it from her mother and that talking is a natural characteristic rather than a deliberate choice.

Q6: Anne says teachers are most unpredictable. Is Mr Keesing unpredictable? How?

A6: Anne describes teachers as unpredictable, and Mr. Keesing fits this description. Initially, Mr Keesing is annoyed with Anne’s talkative behaviour and assigns her extra homework. However, his reaction to Anne’s essays on “A Chatterbox” demonstrates his unpredictability. Instead of punishing Anne further, he reads her humorous poem to the class and other classes, appreciating her creativity and sense of humour. This unexpected response from Mr Keesing contrasts with Anne’s initial expectations, showing that he can be unpredictable in his reactions to students’ behaviour.

Q7: What do these statements tell you about Anne Frank as a person?

(i) We don’t seem to be able to get any closer, and that’s the problem. Maybe it’s my fault that we don’t confide in each other.

A(i): Anne demonstrates introspection and self-awareness by acknowledging her difficulty forming close relationships. She takes responsibility for the lack of intimacy, suggesting a willingness to reflect on her behaviour and its impact on her interactions with others.

(ii) I don’t want to jot down the facts in this diary the way most people would, but I want the diary to be my friend.

A(ii): Anne’s desire for the diary to be her friend reveals her longing for companionship and connection. This sentiment suggests that Anne values emotional intimacy and seeks solace in confiding her thoughts and feelings to her diary, viewing it as a trusted confidant.

(iii) Margot went to Holland in December, and I followed in February, when I was plunked down on the table as a birthday present for Margot.

A(iii) Anne’s recollection of being “plunked down on the table as a birthday present for Margot” highlights her playful and humorous nature. Despite her family’s challenges, Anne maintains a sense of humour and finds joy in small moments, demonstrating resilience and optimism in adversity.

(iv) If you ask me, there are so many dummies that about a quarter of the class should be kept back, but teachers are the most unpredictable creatures on earth.

A(iv): Anne’s observation about teachers’ unpredictability reflects her astute perception of human behaviour and societal dynamics. She recognises the complexities of interpersonal relationships and acknowledges the limitations of authority figures, demonstrating a critical and independent mindset.

(v) Anyone could ramble on and leave big spaces between the words, but the trick was to come up with convincing arguments to prove the necessity of talking

A(v) Anne’s reflection on the necessity of talking reveals her analytical and reflective nature. She demonstrates intellectual curiosity and a desire to understand human behaviour, showing her capacity for critical thinking and insight into social dynamics.

Thinking About Language:

I. Look at the following words.

Match the compound words under ‘A’ with their meanings under ‘B’. Use each in a sentence.

                  A                      B
Heartbreaking– producing great sadness
Homesick– missing home and family very much
Blockhead– an informal word which means a very stupid person
Law-abiding– obeying and respecting the law
Overdo– do something to an excessive degree
Daydream– think about pleasant things, forgetting about the present
Breakdown– an occasion when vehicles/machines stop working
Output– something produced by a person, machine or organisation

Example sentences:

  1. The movie’s ending was so heartbreaking that I couldn’t stop crying.
  1. After moving to a new city, I felt homesick for my family and friends back home.
  1. He’s such a blockhead that he can’t even tie his shoes.
  1. As a law-abiding citizen, I always follow traffic rules.
  1. I overdo it when cooking, adding too much seasoning to the dish.
  1. During boring lectures, I often daydream about exciting adventures.
  1. The car breakdown on the highway left me stranded for hours.
  1. The company’s output has increased significantly since implementing new production methods.

II. Phrasal Verbs:

1. The text you’ve just read has a number of phrasal verbs commonly used in English. Look up the following in a dictionary for their meanings (under the entry for the italicised word).

A1: Definitions of the phrasal verbs:

(i) Plunge (right) in: To begin or undertake something eagerly or without hesitation.

(ii) Kept back: To prevent someone or something from progressing or advancing.

(iii) Ramble on: To talk or write at length in a wandering or unfocused way.

(iv) Get along with: To have a good relationship or rapport with someone.

2. Now find the sentences in the lesson that have the phrasal verbs given below. Match them with their meanings. (You have already found out the meanings of some of them.) Are their meanings the same as that of their parts? (Note that two parts of a phrasal verb may occur separated in the text.)

A2: Matching the phrasal verbs with their meanings:

(i) Plunge in – go straight to the topic

Sentence: “Since no one would understand a word of my stories to Kitty if I were to plunge right in, I’d better provide a brief sketch of my life.”

Meaning: To begin speaking or writing about something directly without preamble or hesitation.

(ii) Kept back – not promoted

Sentence: “If you ask me, there are so many dummies that about a quarter of the class should be kept back, but teachers are the most unpredictable creatures on earth.”

Meaning: To be retained in the same grade or class and not promoted to the next level.

(iii) Move up – go to the next grade

Sentence: “The reason, of course, is the forthcoming meeting in which the teachers decide who’ll move up to the next form and who’ll be kept back.”

Meaning: To advance to the next level or grade, usually in an educational context.

(iv) Ramble on – speak or write without focus

Sentence: “Anyone could ramble on and leave big spaces between the words, but the trick was to come up with convincing arguments to prove the necessity of talking.”

Meaning: To speak or write at length in a disorganised or wandering manner, lacking focus or coherence.

(v) Get along with – have a good relationship with

Sentence: “I get along pretty well with all my teachers.”

Meaning: To have a harmonious or positive relationship with someone.

(vi) Calm down – make (them) remain quiet

Sentence: “Even G.’s pleading glances and my angry outbursts can’t calm them down.

Meaning: To pacify or soothe someone, usually to reduce their agitation or emotional intensity.

(vii) Stay in – stay indoors

Sentence: “I finally stayed where I was, brooding.”

Meaning: To remain indoors or refrain from going out, typically for leisure or social activities.

(viii) Make up for – compensate

Sentence: “This birthday celebration in 1942 was intended to make up for the other.”

Meaning: To compensate for a deficiency or loss by providing something else in return.

(ix) Hand in – give an assignment (homework) to a person in authority (the teacher)

Sentence: “This time it was supposed to be on ‘An Incorrigible Chatterbox’. I handed it in, and Mr Keesing had nothing to complain about for two whole lessons.

Meaning: To submit or deliver something to someone in authority, such as a teacher, typically an assignment or homework.

III. Idioms:

1. Here are a few sentences from the text which have idiomatic expressions. Can you say what each means? (You might want to consult a dictionary first.)

(i) Our entire class is quaking in its boots:  This expression means the whole class feels extremely scared or intimidated. “Quaking in its boots” is an idiom that suggests intense fear or nervousness.

(ii) Until then, we keep telling each other not to lose heart: “Not to lose heart” means not to become discouraged or lose hope. So, in this context, the sentence implies that until a certain point in time, the speaker and others are encouraging each other to remain hopeful.

(iii) Mr Keesing was annoyed with me for ages because I talked so much: “For ages” in this context means a long time. So, the sentence indicates that Mr. Keesing was annoyed with Anne for talking excessively or too frequently over an extended period.

(iv) Mr Keesing was trying to play a joke on me with this ridiculous subject, but I’d make sure the joke was on him: “The joke was on him” is an idiom that means the prank or trick was turned back on the person who initiated it. This sentence suggests that despite Mr Keesing’s attempt to prank Anne, she would ensure that the joke or prank would ultimately affect Mr Keesing instead.

2. Here are a few more idiomatic expressions in the text. Try to use them in sentences of your own.

A2: Idiomatic expressions used in a sentence: 

(i) Caught my eye: The colourful painting caught my eye when I entered the art gallery.

(ii) He’d had enough: After waiting for hours at the airport, he’d had enough and decided to book a hotel room for the night.

(iii) Laugh ourselves silly: Whenever we watch a comedy show, we laugh ourselves silly.

(iv) Can’t bring myself to: I know I should apologise, but I can’t bring myself to admit I was wrong.

IV. You have read the expression ‘not to lose heart’ in this text. Now find out the meanings of the following expressions using the word ‘heart’.Use each of them in a sentence of your own.

A(IV): Following are the sentences using the expressions involving the word “heart”:

1. Break somebody’s heart: Losing her beloved pet dog broke her heart into pieces.

2. Close/dear to heart: Preserving the environment is a cause dear to my heart.

3. From the (bottom of your) heart: His apology seemed sincere, as it came from the heart.

4. Have a heart: Please have a heart and forgive me for my mistake.

5. Have a heart of stone: Witnessing the suffering of others without feeling any empathy suggests that someone has a heart of stone.

6. Your heart goes out to somebody: Watching the documentary about orphaned children, his heart went out to the less fortunate.

V. Contracted Forms:

1: Make a list of the contracted forms in the text and rewrite them as full forms of two words.

A1: List of contracted forms in the text and their full forms:

  • I’ve – I have
  • Didn’t – did not
  • Won’t – will not
  • It’s – it is / it has
  • I’d – I had / I would
  • Can’t – cannot
  • I’m – I am
  • That’s –  that is
  • Who’ll – who will
  • Don’t – do not
  • Let’s – let us
  • There’s – there is
  • They’re – they are
  • Haven’t – have not

2: We have seen that some contracted forms can stand for two different full forms:

A2: It’s – it is / it has

       I’d – I had / I would


You’ve just seen how contracted forms can make a written text sound like actual speech. Try to make this extract sound more like a real conversation by changing some of the verbs back into contracted forms. Then speak out the lines.

[The door’s flung open, and several men tramp in. They carry sticks, and one of them, HOB, has a hammer.]
MOB: Now where’s your husband, mistress?
MARY: In his bed. He’s sick, and weary. You wouldn’t harm him!
HOB: We’re gonna smash his evil work to pieces. Where’s the machine?
SECOND MAN: On the table yonder.
HOB: Then here’s the end of it![HOB smashes the model. MARY screams.]
HOB: And now for your husband!
MARY: Neighbours, he’s a sick man and almost a cripple. You wouldn’t hurt him!
HOB: He’s planning to take away our daily bread… We’ll show him what we think of him and his ways!
MARY: You’ve broken his machine… You’ve done enough…


Now you know what a diary is and how to keep one. Can you keep a diary for a week recording the events that occur? You may share your diary with your class if you wish to. Use the following hints to write your diary.


9th April, 2024
9 PM

Dear Diary, 

Got up early today feeling excited about the start of the Hindu New Year. The house is abuzz with preparations – cleaning, decorating, and cooking. Mom’s making all my favourite dishes. Can’t wait to spend time with family and celebrate together today.

10th April, 2024
8 PM

Dear Diary, 

The midweek slump is real. Struggling to stay on track with assignments and deadlines. Need to find ways to stay organised and manage my time more effectively. Taking short breaks between study sessions to recharge and refocus. Keeping my eyes on the prize and pushing through the obstacles.

11th April, 2024
9 PM

Dear Diary, 

Spent the evening at the library, buried in books and notes. The quiet atmosphere helped me concentrate and make progress on my assignments. Feeling accomplished and productive. Grateful for the resources available to support my academic journey. Determined to keep up the momentum and finish the week strong.
12th April, 2024
5 PM

Dear Diary, 

TGIF! Heading out for a badminton match to unwind and relax. Grateful for the opportunity to disconnect from school and recharge my batteries. Looking forward to a weekend filled with laughter, fun, and good company. Ready to make the most of it before diving back into the grind next week.
13th April, 2024
11 PM

Dear Diary, 

Woke up to a beautiful sunny morning. Decided to start the day with a refreshing walk in the park. The crisp air and vibrant colours of spring lifted my spirits. Spent the afternoon catching up on chores and errands. Later in the evening, attended a friend’s birthday party, surrounded by laughter and good vibes. Grateful for moments like these that remind me to cherish the simple joys of life. As the day winds down, reflecting on the week’s ups and downs, feeling optimistic and ready to tackle whatever comes my way in the week ahead.




This entry in the diary has been made on September 2nd by Samuel Pepys. The person who told Pepys about the fire was called Jane. She called at three in the morning. Pepys went back to sleep because he thought the fire was far enough off. Pepys rose again at seven in the morning. By then about 300 houses had been burned down. The fire had spread to Fish Street by London Bridge. Pepys then walked to the Tower along with Sir J. Robinson’s little son.


After they have completed the lesson, including the writing exercise, students can be asked to make a diary jotting for the previous day. Perhaps you could also write a diary entry describing what happened in school/class on the previous day, to share with the class — try and make it amusing and interesting! Collect students’ pages (they may be allowed to sign their names or make it anonymous, as they wish) and put them up on the class notice board, together with your page, for everyone to read.


16th April, 2024
11 PM

Dear Diary, 

Yesterday’s English class was a riot! Our teacher decided to spice things up by introducing a new game called “English Charades.” Picture this: students acting out English expressions like “barking up the wrong tree” or “raining cats and dogs.” It was hilarious watching everyone’s creative interpretations!

But the real comedy began when it was my turn. I drew the phrase “a piece of cake” and decided to act it out by pretending to devour an imaginary cake with gusto. Little did I know, my exaggerated munching and lip-smacking had the whole class in stitches!

Despite the laughter and silliness, we managed to learn a ton of new idioms and expressions. Who knew learning English could be this fun?

Can’t wait to see what antics await us in our next class!

Extra Questions “From the Diary of Anne Frank”:

Short Answer Type Questions: 

Q1: What prompted Anne Frank to start writing a diary?

A1: Anne Frank began writing in her diary because she needed to express herself and get things off her chest. Despite feeling that no one might be interested in the musings of a thirteen-year-old, she had a strong desire to write.

Q2: To whom did Anne decide to address her diary entries, and why?

A2: Anne addressed her diary entries to a fictional friend named “Kitty” because she felt that paper had more patience than people. She wanted her diary to be a friend with whom she could share her thoughts and experiences.

Q3: Describe Anne’s relationship with her teachers, particularly Mr. Keesing.

A3: Anne got along well with most of her teachers, but Mr Keesing, her math teacher, initially had issues with her talking too much in class. He assigned her essays as punishment, but Anne cleverly turned the assignments into creative endeavours, earning Mr Keesing’s appreciation.

Q4: How did Anne handle the essay assignments given by Mr. Keesing?

A4: Initially, Anne was annoyed by the essay assignments given by Mr. Keesing as punishment for talking too much in class. However, she turned the assignments into opportunities for creativity, coming up with witty and original essays that amused Mr. Keesing and her classmates.

Q5: What was the subject of Anne’s first essay for Mr. Keesing, and how did she approach it?

A5: Anne’s first essay for Mr. Keesing was on “A Chatterbox.” She approached it by arguing that talking is a student’s trait and that she inherited it from her mother. She managed to convince Mr. Keesing with her humorous yet insightful arguments.

Q6: How did Anne respond to Mr. Keesing’s request for a second essay on “An Incorrigible Chatterbox”?

A6: Anne responded to Mr. Keesing’s request by enlisting the help of her friend Sanne to write the essay in verse form. Together, they crafted a humorous poem about a mother duck and a father swan, which amused Mr Keesing and resulted in Anne being allowed to talk in class without further punishment.

Q7: What was the nature of the second essay assignment given to Anne by Mr. Keesing, and how did Anne approach it differently?

A7: The second essay assignment given to Anne by Mr. Keesing was titled “Quack, Quack, Quack, Said Mistress Chatterbox.” Anne approached it with creativity by collaborating with her friend Sanne to write a humorous poem instead of a traditional essay.

Q8: How did Anne’s poem for the second essay assignment reflect her attitude towards Mr. Keesing’s request?

A8: Anne’s poem for the second essay assignment reflected her playful defiance towards Mr. Keesing’s request. By crafting a humorous poem about talking animals, Anne demonstrated her ability to respond to authority with creativity and wit, turning the assignment into an amusement for herself and her teacher.

Q9: What was the outcome of Anne’s second essay regarding Mr. Keesing’s reaction and its impact on Anne’s interactions in class?

A9: Mr. Keesing appreciated Anne’s creativity and originality in her second essay, reading it to the class and other classes. As a result, Anne was allowed to talk in class without further punishment and in a more cheerful atmosphere with her teacher, who began making jokes more often.

Q10: How did Anne’s handling of the essay assignments showcase her character traits?

A10: Anne’s handling of the essay assignments showcased her intelligence, creativity, and resilience. Despite initially facing punishment for talking in class, Anne turned the assignments into opportunities to showcase her wit and ingenuity, ultimately winning over her teacher and earning a more positive relationship with him.

Q11: How did Anne describe her classmates’ reactions to the impending decision about moving up to the following form?

A11: Anne described her classmates as “quaking in their boots” over the impending decision to move to the following form. They were making bets, with some even staking their holiday savings. Anne and her friend found amusement in the situation but reassured each other not to lose heart amidst the uncertainty.

Q12: What is Anne Frank’s background, and why did her family go into hiding?

A12: Anne Frank was a German-born Jewish girl who went into hiding with her family and friends in Amsterdam during the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands. Her family moved to Amsterdam to escape Nazi persecution in Germany but became trapped when the Nazis occupied the Netherlands. As persecution against Jews increased, they went into hiding in July 1942 in hidden rooms in her father’s office building.

Q13: What prompted Anne Frank to write a diary, and how does she feel about it?

A13: Anne Frank started writing in her diary because she needed to express herself and get things off her chest. She acknowledges that writing a diary is a strange experience for her, as she had never written before, and she questions whether anyone would be interested in the musings of a thirteen-year-old girl. However, she feels compelled to write and hopes to find a true friend in her diary, whom she names “Kitty.”

Q14: How does Anne Frank describe her family and life before going into hiding?

A14: Anne describes her family as loving, including her parents, older sister Margot, and herself. They lived in Germany until 1933, when her father emigrated to the Netherlands to escape Nazi persecution. Anne and Margot joined their parents later. Anne briefly recounts her early years, including attending school and the death of her grandmother in 1942.

Q15: What event does Anne Frank describe in her diary entry dated Saturday, 20 June 1942?

A15: In her diary entry dated Saturday, 20 June 1942, Anne describes the anxiety and excitement among her classmates regarding an upcoming meeting where teachers would decide who moves up to the next grade and who gets held back. She shares anecdotes about her interactions with her teachers, particularly Mr. Keesing, who assigned her essays as punishment for talking in class. Anne recounts how she creatively fulfilled her assignments and amused her classmates and teachers with her writing.

Q16: How does Anne Frank handle the essay assignments given to her by Mr. Keesing?

A16: Anne Frank handles the essay assignments given to her by Mr. Keesing with creativity and humour. Initially assigned an essay on “A Chatterbox” for talking in class, she fulfils the task with convincing arguments, attributing her chattiness to inherited traits from her mother. When given a second essay on “An Incorrigible Chatterbox,” she collaborates with her friend Sanne to write a humorous poem instead. Despite the unconventional approach, her teacher, Mr. Keesing, appreciates her ingenuity and originality, leading to a positive outcome for Anne.

Long Answer Type Questions: 

Q1: Describe Anne’s feelings about friendship and her decision to name her diary ‘Kitty’.

A1: Anne feels lonely despite having a loving family and acquaintances. She yearns for a deeper connection and laments her inability to confide in her peers. To combat her isolation, she personifies her diary as her “one true friend,” whom she names Kitty. 

This decision illustrates her longing for companionship and understanding, seeking solace in a medium that offers her patience and receptiveness. Anne hopes to pour out her thoughts and emotions authentically through’ Kitty’, alleviating her sense of isolation and finding a confidante amidst the turmoil of her adolescent experiences.

Q2: What significant events from Anne’s early life does she briefly mention in her diary entry?

A2: Anne briefly mentions several significant events from her early life in her diary entry. She recalls her family’s move from Germany to the Netherlands to escape Nazi persecution, highlighting her father’s emigration in 1933 and her arrival in Amsterdam in 1934. Anne also mentions her schooling experiences, including attending a Montessori nursery school and the emotional farewell to her sixth-grade teacher, Mrs. Kuperus. 

She reflects on her grandmother’s illness and death in 1941 and the subdued celebrations of her birthdays amidst family hardships. These events provide context to Anne’s upbringing and contribute to her introspective reflections on life and identity amidst the backdrop of World War II.

Q3: What dilemma does Anne face regarding her school performance, particularly in math, and how does she address it?

A3: Anne faces a dilemma regarding her school performance, particularly in math, where she expresses uncertainty. Despite getting along well with most of her teachers, she struggles with Mr. Keesing, her math teacher, due to her tendency to talk excessively. Consequently, Mr Keesing assigns her extra homework, including an essay on ‘A Chatterbox’. Anne initially worries about the essay but decides to address it later. 

However, when she finally tackles the assignment, she cleverly argues in her essay that talking is an inherited trait, drawing parallels between her behaviour and her mother’s. This humorous approach reflects Anne’s wit and resourcefulness in navigating her academic challenges.

Q4: Who is Mr. Keesing, and how does he react to Anne’s response to the essay assignment?

A4: Mr. Keesing is Anne’s math teacher, whom she initially annoys with her talkative nature. In response to Anne’s excessive talking, Mr Keesing assigns her extra homework, including an essay on ‘A Chatterbox’. Anne cleverly addresses the assignment by arguing in her essay that talking is an inherited trait, comparing her behaviour to her mother’s. 

Given her lighthearted and creative response, Mr. Keesing reacts with amusement, as evidenced by his laughter. He acknowledges Anne’s ingenuity and originality, reading her essay to the class and several other classes. This reaction indicates Mr Keesing’s appreciation for Anne’s humour and wit in handling the assignment.

Q5: How does Anne’s friend, Sanne, assist her in dealing with Mr. Keesing’s assignment?

A5: Anne’s friend, Sanne, suggests they write the essay together in verse to help her with Mr. Keesing’s assignment. Sanne, skilled at poetry, collaborates with Anne to craft a poem that humorously addresses the topic of a chatterbox. Their partnership allows Anne to infuse creativity and wit into her response, transforming what could have been a mundane assignment into an entertaining piece of writing. 

By working together, Anne and Sanne not only alleviated the pressure of the assignment but also demonstrated the power of friendship and collaboration in overcoming challenges. Sanne’s support enables Anne to navigate the situation with humour and ingenuity, ultimately earning her teacher’s approval.

Q6: In what ways does Anne demonstrate her resilience and wit when dealing with challenges at school?

A6: Anne demonstrates resilience and wit when facing challenges at school through her creative approaches and ability to find humour in difficult situations. Despite struggling with her math teacher, Mr Keesing, Anne cleverly addresses his essay assignments with humour and ingenuity due to her talkative nature. Rather than becoming discouraged by his reprimands, Anne turns the tables by crafting entertaining essays that not only fulfil the requirements but also showcase her wit and intelligence. 

Anne’s collaboration with her friend Sanne to write a poem for one of the assignments demonstrates her resourcefulness and willingness to seek support when needed. Through her resilience and wit, Anne navigates school challenges positively, finding ways to turn setbacks into opportunities for creativity and growth.

Q7: Summarise Anne’s experiences with her teacher, Mr. Keesing, and the essay assignments he gives her.

A7: Anne’s experiences with her teacher, Mr. Keesing, are initially challenging due to her talkative nature in class. As a result, Mr. Keesing assigns her extra homework, including essays on the topic of a chatterbox. Instead of complying with frustration, Anne approaches the assignments with creativity and humour. She argues in her essays that talking is an inherited trait, cleverly drawing parallels to her mother’s behaviour. 

Initially reacting with amusement, Mr. Keesing eventually grows exasperated and assigns Anne a comical essay entitled “Quack, Quack, Quack, Said Mistress Chatterbox” as punishment. Through these experiences, Anne demonstrates resilience and wit, turning her academic challenges into opportunities for self-expression and humour.

Q8: How does Anne demonstrate her resourcefulness and humour in her dealings with school challenges?

A8: Anne demonstrates resourcefulness and humour in her dealings with school challenges by approaching them with creativity and wit. When faced with an essay assignment from her math teacher, Mr Keesing, Anne cleverly argues that talking is an inherited trait, using humour to make her point. She collaborates with her friend Sanne to write a poem for another assignment, showcasing her ability to seek support and work collaboratively. 

Anne’s willingness to think outside the box and find humour in her circumstances allows her to navigate challenges with resilience and ingenuity. Instead of becoming discouraged by setbacks, she uses them as opportunities to showcase her intelligence and creativity, ultimately finding success in her academic endeavours.

Q9: How does Anne’s writing style evolve throughout the diary entry, and what does it reveal about her character?

A9: Anne’s writing style evolves from an initial sense of uncertainty and self-consciousness to a more confident and expressive tone throughout the diary entry. Initially, she questions her diary’s value and doubts whether anyone will be interested in her musings. However, as she delves deeper into her thoughts and experiences, Anne’s writing becomes more introspective and expressive. 

She displays keen observation, humour, and resilience in adversity. This evolution in her writing style reveals Anne’s growth from a young girl grappling with her identity and loneliness to a mature and insightful individual who uses her diary for self-expression and reflection.

Q10: What themes or insights can be gleaned from Anne’s diary entry regarding her experiences as a young girl during World War II?

A10: Anne’s diary entry provides insights into the experiences of a young girl during World War II. Themes of isolation, resilience, and the search for identity emerge as Anne grapples with the challenges of living in hiding and the uncertainty of the future. Despite her confinement, Anne maintains a sense of humour and creativity, using her diary as a means of self-expression and reflection. 

Her longing for friendship and connection amidst the chaos of war highlights the universal human desire for companionship and understanding. Anne’s ability to find joy in small moments and her determination to persevere in the face of adversity are potent reminders of the resilience of the human spirit during times of hardship.


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